Green Infrastructure

Ajax, Ontario: Rain Gardens

The City of Ajax designed and installed three Rain Gardens near Lake Ontario to improve surface water runoff infiltration. The City also implemented two “bio-swales” that will also improve surface water infiltration but are specifically designed to improve beach quality and swimmability.

Collingwood, Ontario: Climate Adaptation Measures

The Town of Collingwood, Ontario, has implemented several programs to further their climate adaptation efforts. These include the Quench Buggy, which aims to promote Collingwood’s tap water and reduce plastic water bottles used at local events; their Water and Energy Conservation Strategy; a
Wastewater Plant Cogeneration Retrofit, which will generate electricity for the plant, using what was previously a waste by-product; and an Energy Audit, the recommendations of which are being developed into a Conservation & Demand Management (CDM) plan.

Quench Buggy News Release

Wastewater Treatment Cogeneration Study


Sarnia, Ontario: Climate Change Adaptation Measures

The City of Sarnia, Ontario has implemented or plans to implement many climate adaptation measures. The City is working in the areas of Parks and Recreation, Transit, Engineering & Public Works, Emergency Management, Land Use Planning, Facilities Planning, and Finance & Legal to implement climate adaptation strategies.

Sarnia Summary of Adaptation Measures

Mississauga: Climate Change Adaptation Plans

“The City of Mississauga is a partner in the Peel Climate Change Strategy that has a number of climate change mitigation and adaptation action (
The City is also involved in a number projects and initiatives aimed at increasing local resiliency
– A vulnerability assessment of the Port Credit Community in Mississauga (led by the Region of Peel)
– A Stormwater Financing study to examine how to fund stormwater projects and infrastructure
– Conducted Low Impact Development Pilot Project along Elm Street
As part of the work completed by the Region of Peel, the City will receive 100 year future climate
projections for Peel later this year. The City will be using that data to determine and prioritise new
adaptation actions”

Our Future Mississauga: Green

Niagara Region, Ontario: Climate Change Adaptation

Niagara Region is adapting to climate change through their Water Strategy, their Community Climate Change Action Plan, their Community Plan, and their Corporate Plan. In their Water Strategy, they highlight the goal of “Water Resiliency,” which “focuses on enhancing our understanding and ability to adapt to changes to our climate, economy and population that may impact water resources.”

Corporate Climate Action Plan

Adapting to Climate Change: Challenges for Niagara

Thunder Bay, Ontario: Climate Adaptation Strategy

“The City of Thunder Bay is developing a Climate Adaptation Strategy to build community resilience, reduce the risks inherent in climate change, and take advantage of opportunities associated with current and future impacts of climate change. Through the development of a Climate Change Adaption Strategy, the City of Thunder Bay aims to: 1) identify the impacts related to climate change in Thunder Bay and the risk they pose to our various service sectors and to our community, and 2) propose actions to reduce risk and vulnerability associated with climate changes impacts through adaptive measures.”

Oshawa, Ontario: Climate Change Adaptation Programs

The City of Oshawa has implemented a number of Climate Change adaptation measures. From floodline mapping, to developing a regional climate adaptation plan, to citizen outreach initiatives, the town has been actively involved in climate change adaptation.

Milwaukee’s Comprehensive Sustainability and Water Plan

“The City of Milwaukee, Wisconsin’s…”ReFresh Milwaukee” program covers eight issue areas (buildings, energy, food system, human capital, land & urban ecosystems, mobility, resource recovery and water) and identifies two catalytic projects where adaptation and resiliency are at the core of the projects (“Inner Harbor 2020” economic and ecological redevelopment of Milwaukee’s inner harbor and the Milwaukee estuary; and HOME GR/OWN which increases access and demand for local healthy food). Across the eight issue areas there 25 goals and 53 targets for the City and its partners to achieve in the next 10 years.”

Mississauga’s Living Green Master Plan

This plan is the City of Mississauga, Ontario's first environmental master plan. The plan seeks to identify priority environmental actions, measure the City's environmental performance, provide information to citizens about living green in their own homes, and to instill environmental consciousness into the corporate DNA.

The plan will also help the city implement further municipal strategic plans, allocate resources, collaborate among departments on environmental matters, and develop baseline targets and indicators to measure success.

A Street Tree Survival Strategy in Toronto (2011)

The City of Toronto has an extensive network of street trees across its breadth to address issues of pollution, stormwater management and to reduce the urban heat island effect. These trees are vulnerable due to difficult growing conditions. Climate change will exacerbate the challenges faced by street trees and reduce the likelihood that they will reach maturity, when they will produce the greatest environmental benefit.

To protect the trees from the imminent climate change impacts, the City of Toronto has implemented several new planting techniques designed to give the trees adequate room to grow, and improve the likelihood that they will thrive. The case study discusses the features and techniques used in this program as well as the challenges that accompany such an undertaking, and the lessons learned by the City. This information may assist other municipalities in implementing similar programs to protect their urban forest, a key component of many urban climate change adaptation strategies.