Climate Change: Adaptation Plans
The 2014 Sustainable Municipal Water Management Public Evaluation Report (SPER) of Milwaukee has been developed for the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative (GLSLCI) in the context of the Sustainable Municipal Water Management (SMWM) declaration. This report is based on six axes: Water Conservation and Efficiency, Shared Water Stewardship, Shoreline and Waterways Restoration, Water Pollution Prevention, Water Protection Planning and Water Preparedness for Climate Change.
“St. Catharines Sustainable Municipal Water Management Program” is a report made by the City of St. Catharines within the Green CiTTs Program. This assessment is based on the SMWM six milestones and covers drinking water, stormwater, wastewater, and climate change issues. 2014.
“The Grand Rapids [Michigan] Climate Resiliency Report builds local expertise on top of climate science, research, and analysis.
The primary goal of the Report is to spur a community conversation leading to processes that will enable Grand Rapids to build a more climate-resilient city. The secondary goal is to spur many specific, short- and near-term projects, policies, programs, and planning actions that enable Grand Rapids to mitigate the effects of climate change, adapt to its impacts, and harness emerging opportunities.” – from the Report's Executive Summary
Over the coming decades, climate change in Toronto is expected to be characterized by more extreme weather events including extreme heat and severe rainstorms. This report provides an overview of potential health impacts identified in the published research including: more illness and death from extreme heat, poor air quality, and vector-borne disease; more injury and illness arising from flooding of homes and businesses; and impacts on mental health.
The 2013 ICAT report highlights how state government is working to adapt to the changing climate, reduce risks and impacts, and increase the resilience of our communities.
The Climate Change Planning report developed by the Canadian Institute of Planners in 2012 is a compendium of ten case studies on climate change adaptation planning in communities across Canada. Each study presents data on a planning process in four phases:
The Project phase offers a brief description of the case; the Essentials phase presents key lessons learned and major tools developed or used throughout the process; the Specifics phase details the project's approach, steps, barriers, results, time and costs; and the Contact phase provides users with contact details of knowledgeable proponents of the project. The case studies included in the report are:
- Tantramar Dykelands Infrastructure at Risk (Sackville, New Brunswick)
- Toronto Green Standard (Toronto, Ontario)
- Waterfront Toronto’s Carbon Tool (Toronto, Ontario)
- Hot Weather Response Plan (Sudbury, Ontario)
- Ecological Footprint and Land Use Scenarios (Calgary, Alberta)
- Planning for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation (Red Deer, Alberta)
- Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (Prince George, British Columbia)
- Gibsons Harbour Area Plan (Gibsons, British Columbia)
- Interim Flood Construction Levels (Vancouver, British Columbia)
- Flood Management Planning in Delta (Delta, British Columbia)
Due to the increasing frequency of extreme heat events in Ontario (and the continued increase expected due to climate changes), the province of Ontario is working closely with health units to reduce the health issues that are caused by such events. Current research efforts include a pilot project which uses existing syndromic surveillance systems that have been adjusted to monitor the progression of heat events and the occurrences of heat-related illnesses in real time.
The case study reviews the process and results of this study and discusses the challenges involved with delivering such a program.
How are American Cities Planning for Climate Change – An Evaluation of Climate Action Planning in Chicago, IL, and Portland, OR
Contending with a changing climate presents a necessary push for planning. Policymakers are recognizing the need for action at the local level. This thesis evaluates the implementation of Climate Action Plans for Chicago, IL and Portland, OR. The studies help elicit an understanding of the measures cites are employing to mitigate climate change and determine ways the planning profession can better assist communities in climate policy development and its prompt implementation.
The City of Toronto has an extensive network of street trees across its breadth to address issues of pollution, stormwater management and to reduce the urban heat island effect. These trees are vulnerable due to difficult growing conditions. Climate change will exacerbate the challenges faced by street trees and reduce the likelihood that they will reach maturity, when they will produce the greatest environmental benefit.
To protect the trees from the imminent climate change impacts, the City of Toronto has implemented several new planting techniques designed to give the trees adequate room to grow, and improve the likelihood that they will thrive. The case study discusses the features and techniques used in this program as well as the challenges that accompany such an undertaking, and the lessons learned by the City. This information may assist other municipalities in implementing similar programs to protect their urban forest, a key component of many urban climate change adaptation strategies.
The City of Guelph, Ontario, is vulnerable to water shortages as they are not located nearby to a major source of water, a challenge that may be exacerbated by proposed climate changes in the region. To prevent such shortages, the City has established incentives, regulations and water conservation programs to relieve the strain on the groundwater source. These efforts are guided by a Water Supply Master Plan that commits the City to achieving a 20% reduction from the 2006 average daily water consumption by 2025.
The case study describes the elements of the City's strategy and discusses the challenges of maintaining public engagement in such a prolonged program. It concludes by identifying several lessons learned that may be of value for municipalities that face similar challenges.